Research on University-level Modeling Instruction has been ongoing for nearly 20 years.  We provide a list of published peer-reviewed papers here:

  1. Brewe, E. (2008). Modeling theory applied: Models in the university physics classroom, American Journal of Physics 76(12), 1155-1160,

  2. Brewe, E., Kramer, L., & O’Brien, G., (2009). Modeling Instruction: Positive attitudinal shifts in introductory physics measured with CLASS, Physics Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research, 5, 013102, [5 pages],

  3. Brewe, E., Sawtelle, V., Kramer, L.H., O’Brien, G.E., Rodriguez, I., & Pamela, P. (2010). Toward equity through participation in Modeling Instruction in introductory university physics, Physical Review Special Topics-Physics Education Research, 6, 010106, [12 pages], 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.6.010106.

  4. Brewe, E, (2011). Energy as a substance-like quantity that flows: Theoretical considerations and pedagogical consequences, Physical Review Special Topics – Physics Education Research, 7, 020106, [14 pages]. 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.7.020106

  5. Sawtelle, V., Brewe, E. & Kramer, L.H. (2012) Exploring the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Retention of Students, both Men and Women, in Introductory Physics, Journal of Research in Science Teaching DOI: 10.1002/tea.21050

  6. Goertzen, R.M., Brewe, E., Kramer, L.H. (2012) Expanded markers of
    success in introductory university physics, International Journal of Science Education, p. 1-27, doi:10.1080/09500693.2012.718099

  7. Brewe, E., Traxler, A.L., de la Garza, J.E., & Kramer, L.H., (2013). Extending positive C-LASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction, Physical Review Special Topics – Physics Education Research 9(2), 020116 [10 pages]  doi: 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.9.020116.

  8. Traxler, A., Brewe, E. (2015).  Equity investigation of attitudinal shifts in introductory physics, Physical Review Special Topics – Physics Education Research 11(2), 020132 [7 pages], doi: 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.11.020132.

  9. Dou, R., Brewe, E., Zwolak, J., Potvin, G., Williams, E.A., and Kramer, L.H. (2016). Beyond Performance Metrics: Examining a drop in students’ physics self-efficacy through a social networks lens, Physical Review – Physics Education Research 12(2), 020124 [14 pages], doi:10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.12.020124.


If you are aware of other research on Modeling Instruction at the University-level, we would be happy to link them here.